An obelisk at Göbeklitepe appears to depict a sky burial ritual. The obelisk seems to date to 12,000 years ago.
“The scene on the obelisk unearthed in Göbeklitepe could be construed as the first pictograph because it depicts an event thematically. It depicts a human head in the wing of a vulture and a headless human body under the stela,” ?anl?urfa Museum Director and Göbeklitepe excavation head Müslüm Ercan said. “There are various figures like cranes and scorpions around this figure. This is the portrayal of a moment; it could be the first example of pictograph. They are not random figures. We see this type of thing portrayal on the walls in 6,000-5,000 B.C. in Çatalhöyük [in modern-day western Turkey].”
The site is Kültepe-Kani?-Karum in central Turkey. Most of the 23,500 cuneiform tablets document commerce, but some are turning up more interesting details.
“From women’s rights to the adoption of children and marriages arranged at birth, the tablets include all kinds of civilizational and social data from Anatolia 4,000 years ago. There is also an emotional letter from a woman to her husband and a letter from another woman who complains about her mother-in-law. You can’t find such things in an empire’s official archive,” he said.
Nev?ehir. “…the city was in use from the Byzantine era through the Ottoman conquest.”
Geophysicists from Nev?ehir University conducted a systematic survey of a 1.5-mile (4-kilometer) area using geophysical resistivity and seismic tomography. From the 33 independent measurements they took, they estimate the site is nearly five million square feet (460,000 square meters).
These studies suggest the underground corridors may plunge as deep as 371 feet (113 meters). If that turns out to be accurate, the city could be larger than Derinkuyu by a third.
The locals seem very excited about their discovery and eager to explore and preserve it.
Hasankeyf might be as important as Göbekli Tepe, except it might be older and has been continuously inhabited. Turkey apparently has been wanting to build a reservoir here for decades (with an Austrian company as the constructor) and seems finally to be moving ahead. It’s a Kurdish area and it’s Turkey, so there’s almost certainly an element of ethnic persecution in play here. It seems that there are now 3,000 people now at work prepping. Not all elements of the Turkish government are hellbent on this idiotic scheme, as according to this original news story (in Spanish,) “The Turkish State Council ordered the suspension of works at the request of the Bar Association and Engineers, since there was no environmental impact assessment.”
The construction of this damn seems as wantonly destructive and callous as the destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas or the attempted destruction of the manuscripts of Timbuktu, except in this case, because someone is making a financial profit, it’s not being as universally reviled. This site was one of the most important points in the creation of Western Civilization. Yeah, let’s just flood it.
((There is an English subtitles switch on the YouTube toolbar.))
Some Gobekli Tepe photos of some fieldwork identifying where the obsidian tools used to carve originated. Tools are excavated and sent back to lab in Paris to be analyzed by Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy. One site is 150 miles away (Lake Van) and another 300 (Cappadocia.)
(Damn, i thought that this was old news.)
DNA analysis reveals that wheat was used in agriculture at the Çatalhöyük site 8,500 years ago. While i was trying to track down the source of the oldest known cultivation of emmer wheat, i ran across this excellent overview of myths of the Neolithic Revolution, on a blog that i’ve never run across before, Mathilda’s Anthropology Blog. It has the Neolithic Revolution at 15,000 years ago in southeastern Turkey, which automatically earns my loyalty. It’s a deeper, more professional blog, but has photos and maps. Woo hoo.
There is a nice little overview of Göbleki Tepe over on the Guardian. It would be fruitful to raise its profile in the consciousness of the public. Stonehenge is a wondrous site, but in pop culture, it and the Egyptian Pyramids dominate the landscape of great antiquity, leading to the false assumption that there are mysteries about early man that are no quite the mysteries that they seem. Civilization and culture have been around a long time, and there were a lot of false dawns through the ages.
There is piece in there that i need to follow up on:
Vecihi Ozkaya, the director of a dig at Kortiktepe, 120 miles east of Urfa, doubts the thousands of stone pots he has found since 2001 in hundreds of 11,500-year-old graves quite qualify as that. But his excitement fills his austere office at Dicle University in Diyarbakir.
“Look at this”, he said, pointing at a photo of an exquisitely carved sculpture showing an animal, half-human, half-lion. “It’s a sphinx, thousands of years before Egypt. South-eastern Turkey, northern Syria – this region saw the wedding night of our civilisation.”
I wish that i knew exactly how old the sculpture that he is describing is. (11,500 years? Or is that just the oldest grave of the site?) Looking up sphinx on Wikipedia was no help, as they date the image of the sphinx to the fourth dynasty of Egypt (2723 BC to 2563 BC.) That just seems wrong. However, my old Dungeons & Dragons background points to shedu and lama. Somewhere out there, someone has to have created a convenient timeline of the human-animal hybrid imagery used in art in that area. Now i gotta track it down.
The circus begins again. I don’t know why this is starting again. Here’s a clip from the story to explain:
Istanbul’s ?i?li Third Civil Court of First Instance dropped the case in a 2006 ruling on the grounds that there had been no violation of the individual rights of the plaintiffs in Pamuk’s remarks. The plaintiffs appealed the court decision.
After reviewing the local court’s ruling, the Court of Appeals nullified it on the grounds that there was no definition of individual rights in the Turkish legal system and that the scope of individual rights was not definite.
The civil suit is entirely separate from the charges levied against Pamuk under Article 301.
“It has been left to the judiciary to decide on what goes into the definition of individual rights. Both in legal doctrine and judicial rulings, it is acknowledged that individual rights include individuals’ physical, emotional and social values as well their profession, honor and dignity, freedom, health, race, religion and bonds of citizenship,” read the court ruling. The court noted that the plaintiffs had a legal right to file a complaint over Pamuk’s remarks because they were linked with citizenship bonds. The court asked for the review of the case in consideration of the fact that the plaintiffs had a legal right to file such a case.
It sounds like awful reasoning on the part of the Court of Appeals, regardless of my partiality to Pamuk. It opens the door for all kinds of specious claims. Some ultra-nationalist judge with a personal grudge against Pamuk is setting aside common sense just to attack him.
Betcha this ruling won’t stand.
I’m now in the process of trying to convince Bill to record for YouTube a video of himself shrieking hysterically, tears and snot dripping from his cheeks, howling, “Leave Orhan alone!”
The Globe & Mail is an embarrassment. Someone takes the time to respond to Berlinski’s attack piece on Pamuk, and they immediately allow Berlinski to tack on a bullshit explanation behind that.
Check this out:
A few trivial points before I go. I did not suggest that Pamuk’s literary honours were evidence of a malign political bias among those who awarded them. I suggested that they were evidence of political bias. Malignity has nothing to do with it. I share the biases in question; I too am opposed to the persecution of outspoken writers who live in Turkey, particularly since I am an outspoken writer who lives in Turkey. But the Nobel Prize in literature is supposed to be literary, not political.
Wow. Holy fucking shit… what a narcissist!
Has Berlinski ever received a serious death threat? How close was she to Hrant Dink? Has she been brought to trial under Article 301 like Elif Shafak?
No matter how many coffees she drinks in the cafes gossiping with her Turkish friends, she will remain a tourist and a dilettante.
Oh yeah, and the Nobel Prize for Literature has been political for a very, very long time. Does she really want to throw around the word naive while making assertions about the way it is supposed to be?
It’s childish when she protests against Garebian pointing out her misreading of Nabokov, writing, “As for Pamuk and Nabokov, the words I used were Pamuk’s, not mine.” The fool is begging for someone to smack her with the context from which she snatched Pamuk’s words to misrepresent, as well as the meaning of the book Lolita beyond the superficial reading of the plot. I already covered this last time. If she cannot grasp Pamuk’s point of Nabokov as a cruel writer, with Nabokov having a pedophile who “searches for timeless beauty with all the innocence of a small child,” then she is completely beyond hope in her obtuseness. She can call herself a writer all that she likes, but she is no reader, and thus has no right to be reviewing Other Colors.